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Fountain at dusk, Shalimar Gardens, Lahore, February 2004

photograph by Gordon Brent Ingram


University of California, Berkeley, Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Planning, 1989, Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, College of Environmental Design with a focus on social and institutional factors and related stakeholder analysis in biodiversity conservation and environmental design of public space.

examination fields

·Theories of environmental planning and design (and related ecological design and organizational development) for sustainability transitions

·Environmental impact assessment for community development extending to both natural and social factors

·Conservation planning initiated by indigenous governments for islands with remaining primary rainforest

Ph.D. dissertation

Planning district networks of protected habitat conservation of biological diversity:

A manual with applications for marine islands with primary rainforest.

Available through University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan as dissertation 9006370.

case studies in doctoral research

·Burnaby Island, Gwaii Haanas, Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada

·Siberut Island, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia

·Fergusson Island, D’Entrecasteaux Islands, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea

theoretical context of dissertation research

This work was part of the movement to decolonise notions of and institutional frameworks for networks of parks and other protected areas, initiated by Kenyan Walter Lusigi, especially through more fully recognizing ongoing stewartship by indigenous communities, local protection and management concerns, and community development priorities. In this way, the work linked ecological impact assessment and related spatial modelling to the first wave of work on integrating local knowledge into the land use planning and management frameworks of national and provincial governments.

doctoral committee

·Richard Meier, Professor (later Emeritus & now deceased), Department of City and Regional Planning / Department of Landscape Architecture / Department of Architecture, College of Environmental Design, Berkeley

·Ray Dasmann, Professor (later Emeritus & now deceased), Environmental Studies Board, University of California at Santa Cruz

·Bill Lidicker, Professor (now Emeritus), Environmental Sciences, and Director, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley

·Robert Twiss, Professor (now Emeritus), Department of Landscape Architecture, Berkeley

field work as part of doctoral studies

·California 1 year total

·Indonesia 1 year total (mainly Sumatera and the Mentawai Islands)

·Papua New Guinea 6 months total mainly in Milne Bay Province and the D’Entrecasteaux Archipelago

·The Sahel of Africa (Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, northern Cameroon): 1 year total

·Haida Gwaii, Canada 3 months total (linked to earlier MSc field studies of north-eastern Graham Island

additional doctoral research

·Early exploration (in the early 1980s) of the implications of landscape ecology for landscape architecture, regional planning, and sustainability (professors with the most influence: Bill Lidicker and Ray Dasmann)

·Traditional knowledge and ethnobotany combined with studies in environmental horticulture and ecogeographical surveying of crop genepools with field work in Africa and Asia (research supervisor: J. Trevor Williams, PhD, DSc)

·Design of networks ofopen space as part of community planning (professor with the greatest influence: Eldon Beck the original designer of Whistler, British Columbia)

·Design and development of some of the first geographic information systems for biodiversity conservation emphasizing fine-scaled spatial data (beginning in 1983 with the first SUN Workstations used by environmental management GIS and using of UNIX, C,Pascal and GRASS, and early ESRI ARC INFO software) (most influential professor: Dr. Robert Twiss who designed early GIS for regional planning in such areas as Lake Tahoe, California / Nevada)

·Assessment of use and social conflict in parks and other public open space (professor with the greatest influence: Clare Cooper-Marcus)

·Landscape aesthetics and related frameworks for urban and landscape design(professor with the greatest influence: Burt Litton the founder of the United States Forest Services visual resources analysis programmes)

·Photographic documentation of landscapes and communities

·Conservation planning theory and institutional analysis (professor with the most influence: Jeff Romm)

Antioch College (Yellow Springs, Ohio / San Francisco campus), Master of Science in Ecosystem Management, 1981 with a oncentration in Ecological Planning and Design. Major professors were environmental horticulturalist Sheila Darr, William and Helga Olkowski who were early leaders in integrated pest management, ecologist Arnold Schultz, systems and sustainability theorist Loren Cole, and Michael Laurie, a seminal figure on reintroducing nature to cities.Teaching and laboratory facilities were at the Integral Urban House in Berkeley, California.


Fragments: Management, protection and restoration proposals for thirteen ecological reserves in British Columbia, Canada. A report to the Ecological Reserves Committee and Advisory Board of the Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing of the Government of BC, June 1981.

Available through University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, thesis number 1317516. This work focused on the still controversial acknowledgement of indigenous legacies and cultural landscapes in remaining fragments of ‘natural’ ecosystems in three regions of British Columbia: the Gulf Island, the Okanagan, and the lowlands of north-eastern Graham Island of Haida Gwaii.

San Francisco Art Institute, San Francisco, California, Bachelor of Fine Arts (Honours) in Photography, 1980, with an emphasis on documentation of landscapes, communities and environmental conflicts with a particular interest in two topics: traces of indigenous communities in so-called natural landscapes and portraiture of gay males at a time of greater visibility and militancy. My major teachers were the following:

1.Reagan Louie, author of the 1991 Aperture book, Towards a Truer Life, portraying urban space in China after the Cultural Revolution;

2.Linda Connor, author of Solos; and

3.Ellen Brooks.

The Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington, Bachelor of Arts in Environmental Studies, 1976, with related studies in environmental design and aesthetics. Final project for degree: Northern Garry Oak Ecosystems in British Columbia and the Puget Sound. The most influential of my teachers were the following:

1.Mary Nelson an early Salish theoretician of contemporary art (as situated within the cosmologies of traditional landscapes) who also advised on some early field work on Haida Gwaii;

2.Pacific Northwest historian Matt Smith who arranged and supervised a research internship focused on environmental and land use history for me with the The New Democratic Party Caucus of the British Columbia Legislature when that party formed the government under Premier Dave Barrett including formative mentoring from two ‘backbencher’ Members of the Legislature, early African Canadian feminist figure, Rosemary Brown, and future party leader, Bob Skelly;

3.anthropologist Peggy Dickinson who supervised research in landscape aesthetics and who arranged some research with early theoretician on Salish graphic representation, Bill Holmes; and

4.biologist Dave Milne an early figure in research on the terrestrial-marine interface of the San Juan Islands of Washington and the adjacent Gulf Islands.

secondary school

·New Community School, Oakland, California, 1971-1972, secondary school graduation on scholarship, university preparatory, with activities including chairing the schools Social Action Committee and field studies in the Sierra Nevada Range of California.

·Oak Bay Junior Secondary School, Victoria, 1967 – 1971, Honour Roll.