ḴEXMIN, Lomatium nudicaule, a species with deep cultural, medicinal & nutritional significance to Salish communities

2018 September 24 ḴEXMIN, south of the Tsawout / SȾÁUTW̱ treaty lands P9240014 photograph by Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

 
 
 
 
 
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blooming ḴEXMIN, late spring in Lək̓ʷəŋən Territory, Vancouver Island

2019 2019 May 27 Lomatium nudicaule just beginning to flower, Lək̓ʷəŋən territory, Vancouver Island P1010022

Two of the most important Salish plants just coming into bloom: ḴEXMIN (yellow flowers) and camas, Camassia spp, in a traditional Lekwungen agricultural, gathering, and stewardship site, 2019 April 25 Lək̓ʷəŋən territory, Vancouver Island P4250100

ḴEXMIN [SENĆOŦEN], Lomatium nudicaule, just south of the  1852 Indian Reserve line set (under severe threat of imperial violence) for the W̱SÁNEĆ, north of Island View Beach, Central Saanich, Vancouver Island

2018 September 24 ḴEXMIN, south of the Tsawout / SȾÁUTW̱ treaty lands, Vancouver Island  P9240083

2018 September 24 ḴEXMIN, south of the Tsawout / SȾÁUTW̱ treaty lands P9240017

“One ceremonially prized plant, ‘wild celery’ (Lomatium nudicaule), was, and is still today, widely used and sought for medicinal and ceremonial purposes, and its seeds used as gifts. Some contemporary Northwest Coast peoples are careful to leave wild celery seeds behind, or to scatter seeds (when gathering medicines) to ensure it’s continuation, and this seems a likely candidate as a species that was managed and whose range has been extended through past human intervention. This attribution of a ‘spirit’ within all of nature’s creations, and of the powers of plants to affect human lives and human well-being, is another reflection of, and reason for, peoples’ stewardship of the plants they depend upon…” (Douglas Deur and Nancy J. Turner. 2005. Conclusions. in Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J. Turner (eds). Vancouver: UBC Press / Seattle: University of Seattle Press. pages 331 – 342. quote from pages 334 – 335 )

2018 September 24 ḴEXMIN south of the Tsawout / SȾÁUTW̱ treaty lands P9240028 This population is highly vulnerable to ongoing sea level rise and saltwater intrusion into roots.

In addition, the 2020 COVID19 pandemic has compelled herbalists to highlight the exceptional power of Lomatium  species as traditional and settler medicine for treating lung and viral disorders.

Renewing biodiversity conservation planning strategies as part of joint management with First Nations especially for the drier islands around the northern Salish Sea.

Gordon Brent BROCHU-INGRAM, KEXMIN field station, April 9, 2021, The Land We Would Like To Be: Renewing biodiversity conservation planning strategies as part of joint management with First Nations around the northern Salish Sea. City and Regional Futures Colloquium, Department of City and Regional Planning, Cornell University College of Architecture, Art, and Planning.

ḴEXMIN, Lomatium nudicaule: the medicine and food

2020 May 6 ḴEXMIN [SENĆOŦEN], Lomatium nudicaule, in a Lekwungen field, in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria, Vancouver Island P1010160

ḴEXMIN [SENĆOŦEN], Lomatium nudicaule, is a powerful flowering plant linking humans to the ecosystems in which we live in the drier areas near the West Coast of North America from Northern California to the Salish Sea.

Springbank clover, Trifolium wormskioldii, persisting in an old Salish food production area on Hwmet’utsun, Salt Spring Island

Springbank clover, Trifolium wormskioldii, in the upper exclosure
in the Hwmet’utsun protected landscapes 2020 May 3 * P1010073

While the Salish cultivated Springbank clover, Trifolium wormskioldii, on relatively dry sites, such as Clover Point in Victoria, much more has been recorded about indigenous cultivation in estuaries north of the Salish Sea. This site on Salt Spring Island, at nearly 300 metres, is still relatively warm and damp from seasonal seepages. But how the Cowichan cultivated, harvested, and stewarded Springbank clover, if at all on this mountain, is not so clear.

Springbank clover, Trifolium wormskioldii, in the upper exclosure
in the Hwmet’utsun protected landscapes 2020 May 3 * P1010076

Precious Garry oak, Quercus garryana, savannah on Mount Tuam, Salt Spring Island

old Garry oak, western parcel of Mount Tuam Ecological Reserve – Salt Spring Island April 1978 photograph by a very young, Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

Garry oak, Quercus garryana, has an exceptionally long range along the Pacific from the higher mountains of Baja California to the shores of the Salish Sea. But the tree only dominates certain ecosystems, and grows into a particularly large tree, from west central Oregon northward. Around the Salish Sea, Garry oak savannah, where grasses and forbs are not under more than 50% tree cover are the products of particularly dry, south-western slopes combined with several thousand years of low-temperature, Salish burning.

Because of suppression of wildfire and traditional Salish burning, these Garry oak savannahs are in rapid decline shifting to Garry oak woodland, with more than 50% tree cover with much less, exposed grassland. And without fire, Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, is often establishing, overtaking, and killing Garry oak as we can see this beginning to happen to a grove of Garry oak on Mount Tuam.

2020 April 5 pocket watch discovery above Mountain Road below the south-west corner of the middle of the three parcels of Mount Tuam Ecological Reserve

On the April 5, 2020 walk from Mountain Road into the Garry oak savannah, just below the south-western corner of the central of the three parcels comprising Mount Tuam Ecological Reserve, I found this old pocket watch that was probably uncovered by snows months earlier. This Westclox pocket watch is identified as made in Canada which only took place from 1922 to 1930 after which time the Canadian plant in Peterborough, Ontario was bought by a larger company with another name. This model was the first mass-produced pocket watch and, while cheap, could well have been the prized possession of the owner. While the watch was found in young forest (barely fifty years old), it was a few metres away from sheep fencing and in the period when the watch was produced and sold, the major activity for non-native people to be on those slopes was to tend flocks.

COOL FIRES: Indigenous burning to sustain wild / traditional fruit trees for radical expansion of urban woodlands as contemporary multimedia practices

proposal to Het Nieuwe Instituut, Museumpark 25, 3015 CB Rotterdam, 2019 Call for Fellows for BURN-OUT. Exhaustion on a Planetary Scale, callforfellows@hetnieuweinstituut.nl

2019 April 20 old fence posts in a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

COOL FIRES: Indigenous burning to re-establish wild / traditional fruit trees for radical expansion of urban woodlands as contemporary multimedia practices

PDF version of this proposal: BROCHU-INGRAM_COOL_FIRES

synopsis: This project is about one anecdote to planetary burnout: low-temperature burning based on traditional additional practices that creates ecological space for wild and traditional fruit trees that provide food to pollinators and humans while fixing carbon. The proposed work at Het Nieuwe Instituut centres on generating essays, presentations, and performances that answer a series of questions. How can notions of the ‘anthropocene’ be fully decolonized with various disparities accorded indigenous communities illustrated through contemporary site-based and multimedia visual practices? How can notions of burn-out and burning be explored for metropolitan and indigenous art-worlds and when can re-establishment of traditional burning by often marginalized communities and unrecognized landowners be considered contemporary aesthetic interventions? Similarly, how can various tree cultivation cultures (some of which rely on ‘cool burning’), that span the colonized and colonizers, be explored? And how can strategies and interventions to rapidly re-establish fruit tree woodlands in urban and suburban areas, to function as carbon sinks and security for both human and pollinator food, be considered as contemporary performative and site-based artistic practices? Finally, there is a more paradigmatic question that can be explored for indefinitely. Can the re-contextualizing and repurposing of localized, indigenous ecological and cultural practices, by descendants of respective communities, as contemporary aesthetic interventions be a viable form of decolonization where retrogressive forms of appropriation can be identified and countered?

2019 April 19 volunteer hybrid of a Eurasian pear cultivar with a native crab-apple, Malus fusca, on a bluff and vulnerable to sea level rise, Ruckle Provincial Park, Salt Spring Island

introductory video / audio describing context: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gE-1ghIHt84&feature=youtu.be

2019 April 20 charred sticks in a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

introduction & problem statement: While levels of combustion and carbon transfer into the atmosphere have been unsustainable since the Industrial Revolution, there are earlier burning practices originating from localized, indigenous communities that have not only been beneficial, ecologically, but also forms of site-based, cultural expression. Notions of the ‘Anthropocene’ that have emerged over the last decade, have too often conflated thousands of years of ‘cool burning’ with the more recent Apocalyptic fires that are contributing to climate change. And without proactive forms of light burning, to lower fuel levels in forests and woodlands, the temperate latitudes are destined to see the kinds of mass incineration of communities observed recently in Greece, California, Portugal, British Columbia, and Russia. Today, we see a range of governments advocating ways to ‘fire-smart’ (a concocted verb) homes as to avoid uncontrollable fire storms that are increasingly leading to incineration of people and communities. In contrast, new ways to sequester carbon, such as massive planting of more resilient forms of fruit trees, are necessary while countering related trends through providing food for human beings and pollinators and shade for increasingly hot urban areas. But the ‘arts’ for bringing indigenous practices, such as cool burning for fruit cultivation, into new forms of environmental problem-solving related to climate change have been poorly theorized and barely explored.

2019 April 19 blossom of a volunteer hybrid of a Eurasian pear cultivar with a native crab-apple, Malus fusca, on a bluff and vulnerable to sea level rise, Ruckle Provincial Park, Salt Spring Island (with dark blotches rain drops in an exceptionally powerful rain storm)

Apocalyptic fire & postcolonial melancholy: In recent decades there has been a blossoming of largely parallel theorizing in the Anthropocene as a cosmopolitan extension of formerly neocolonial forms of early environmentalism and indigenous politics and culture that remain rooted in diverse experiences of particular localities. While Anthropocene theorizing is almost inherently global, new work on indigeneity, particularly in relationship to ecosystem management and problem-solving, is largely site-specific. A more fundamental tension is that the core spectre of Anthropocene theorizing centres on Judeo-Christian forms of ‘Apocalyptic fire’, as cosmic retribution for lack of concern for the earth, indigenous theorizing (and culture) is largely centred on having survived the last five century of Apocalyptic genocide. So the ecological spectre in indigenous theorizing includes climate change but as part of the continued losses: grinding processes of impoverishment, ill health, and high rates of death; economic and political marginalization; and assimilation. And while great strides have been made in indigenous communities, in countries such as Canada, in retaking self-management of communities, territories, and natural resources, these gains are often over-shadowed by awareness of the extent of the losses leading to forms of postcolonial melancholy that can paralyze individuals and communities — even in the face of existential threats such as climate change. And postcolonial melancholy extends to an awareness of the extent of traditional knowledge that has been lost and actively destroyed – such as the lack of colonial and neocolonial recognition of indigenous orchards in British Columbia, the nearly total destruction of those cultural sites, and the erasure of respective traditional knowledge through residential schools. In the face of such huge losses, sometimes it just nice to do a bit of ‘cool’ burning.

The contrasts between these two profoundly different experiences of climate change — the global cosmopolitan and the localized indigenous, especially in relationship to more existential forms of burn-out, have only been explored superficially. So today as an indigenous person, living in the territory in which I grew up, recreating a low-intensity burn as part of re-establishing native fruit trees, as a gift to the earth and a homage to the elders who trained me, far out-weighs the respective carbon that is added to the atmosphere — a fraction of my total carbon footprint dominated by reliance on internal combustion engines (including trains and buses and even bicycles), power grids still dependent on natural gas, consumer patterns that almost require more polluting, and digital technologies that rely on unsustainable forms of energy production (notably cryptocurrencies).

2019 April 20 old fence posts in a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

project concept: The object of this project, partially outlined at www.gordonbrentingram.ca/presqueperdu, is to inspire the rapid expansion of urban woodlands dominated by native fruit trees in the middle latitudes of the North Hemisphere with particular interest for the urban areas around Vancouver and Seattle, with populations totally over 8 million people and European cities in the same latitudes especially Paris, Geneva, and the Randstad.

2019 April 20 the forest edge of a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island. The blooming tree behind it is a North American fruit tree native, one of two local species of black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii.

traditional knowledge, modern science & aesthetic representation strategies: It is my deep belief that the extent of the losses of traditional knowledge about burning and native tree crops (different species of the same genera imposed through settler orchards), cannot be fully understood, especially for indigenous people, through ethnography and science. The losses and the ruptures are too profound. Recovering these practices can best be done through transmissions of experience embodied in the ‘play’ of contemporary collaborative art. Similarly, there are new forms of cosmopolitan avoidance about the coming fire storms of climate change. In the context of globalization, contemporary multimedia and site-based art often offers the best chance to disrupt, inspire, demonstrate, guide, and recover and heal land and communities.

2019 April 20 volunteer hybrids of native black hawthorn, Eurasian hawthorn, and apple / crabapple on the edge of a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

research approach & methodologies: The proposed work at Het Nieuwe Instituut would centre on four sets of activities:

participating in seminars and debates with colleagues;

completion of a set of advanced bibliographies some of have already been posted but require expansion[1];

completion of one theoretical essay (tentatively entitled ‘Decolonizing the Anthropocene’) and three long chapters with sub-headings that currently total over 40,000 words and are intended for websites and catalogues; and

site visits and interviews for development of a set of presentations, performances, and interventions oriented to north-western Europe.

The work on completing the bibliographies would focus on the following: the intersection of Anthropocene[2] and indigenous theory especially for site-based and public art; contemporary visual practices for site-based, ecological, and land art[3] involving burning and indigenous and traditional tree cultivation; and a well-along critique of the writings of Marcel Proust and his codification of the modern consumer aesthetic (that my work above effectively challenges)[4].

2019 April 20 burned sticks in a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

fellowship products, media & dissemination: My goals for products from the proposed work centre on the following:

publication of a high profile, peer-reviewed essay on the central discourses of this fellowship at the Nieuwe Instituut, tentatively entitled, ‘Decolonising the Anthropocene’, and submitted to journals such as e-flux with dissemination within a year of completion of the fellowship;

completion, editing, and posting on-line of three long essays (15,000 to 25,000 words with subheadings) on radical re-establishment of traditional burning and circumpolar fruit tree woodlands as contemporary site-based, multimedia art as a kind of ‘decolonial land art’;

providing up to five public events in the period of the fellowship in north-western Europe with a minimum of 60 minutes duration such as presentations, performances, and site-based interventions; and

initial phases of at least three, multimedia works with initial photographs, videos, site-based sculpture, text, and ongoing proposals (most likely related to the performances and interventions proposed above).

2019 April 20 native nettles, Urtica dioica, stimulated by a low-intensity fire two weeks before in a century-old orchard, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

proposed calendar: I would be available to be in Europe full-time for the entire six months, from September through February, but would be just as happy to stagger the months to optimize opportunities for seminars, presentations, and the Ukraine field trip. Within the context of this flexibility, the following would be the key activities for each month:

Month 1 – seminars with other fellows, completion of literature reviews and bibliographies, completion of long essays for posting, conception of the public events,

Month 2 – seminars with other fellows; completion of literature reviews and bibliographies, completion of long essays for posting, planning the public events, site visits for the multimedia projects,

Month 3 – seminars with other fellows; completion of literature reviews and bibliographies, completion of long essays for posting, executing at least one public event, site visits for the multimedia projects,

Month 4 – writing the shorter and most important essay as BURN-OUT synthesis, executing at least one public event, completion of the proposals for the multimedia projects

Month 5 — writing the shorter and most important essay as BURN-OUT synthesis, executing at least one public event, completion of the proposals for the multimedia projects

Month 6 — writing the shorter and most important essay as BURN-OUT synthesis, executing at least one public event, completion of the proposals for the multimedia projects

2019 April 20 the edge of a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

graphic material: The illustrations for this proposal are posted at the following page:

http://gordonbrentingram.ca/KEXMINfieldstation/2019/04/10/cool-fires-indigenous-burning-to-sustain-wild-traditional-fruit-trees-for-radical-expansion-of-urban-woodlands-as-contemporary-multimedia-practices/

and more general discussions of expanding wild and traditional fruit tree woodlands for carbon sinks and food security for pollinators and humans is posted in the pages of the following project site: www.gordonbrentingram.ca/presqueperdu .

2019 April 20 old fence posts in a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

preparation for this research & creative production: The following experiences of prepared me to embark and complete this work in ways that optimize public debate and impact: growing up in an indigenous family struggling with three declining languages; exposure to traditional burning and native fruit tree cultivation practices starting at five years of age; early arts training spanning local indigenous traditions and contemporary Western mixed media; advanced degrees in contemporary art, environmental science, and ecological design; over a hundred publications, fifteen exhibitions, and eighty public presentations; currently actively engaged in traditional land stewardship and food production fifteen kilometres from where I was born and grew up.

arts vitae: BROCHU-INGRAM arts vitae

scholarly vitae: BROCHU-INGRAM curriculum vitae

 

2019 April 20 burned sticks on the edge of a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

notes

[1] http://www.gordonbrentingram.ca/presqueperdu/index.php/category/bibliographies/

[2] I will start the review of most recent literature on the Anthropocene with McKenzie Wark’s 2015, Molecular Red: Theory for the Anthropocene. (London: Verso).

[3] Two departures in contemporary art are Heather Davis’s 2015 anthology, Art in the Anthropocene: Encounters Among Aesthetics, Politics, Environments and Epistemologies (Berlin: Anexact) and Emily Eliza Scott and Kirsten Swenson’s 2015 anthology, Critical Landscapes: Art, Space, Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press).

[4] I have read and reread all of Proust’s writings in the English translations and have a moderate command of the original material in French. With many pages of notes, I hope to complete an introductory and rather sardonic essays, with a working title of ‘Proust and Me’, not focused on his passages on social commentary, opaque homoeroticism, and antisemitism but rather his mention of orchard trees, rural landscapes, and the triggers for memory and narrative of particular odours and tastes.

2019 April 20 half burned sticks on the edge of a century-old orchard a day after a low-intensity burn to control an invasive, Eurasian blackberry in preparation of planting native fruit trees, KEXMIN field station, Salt Spring Island

still underwater: Tracing Skwácháy̓s, “water coming up from ground beneath”, in today’s False Creek Flats

an informal surveyor map of what is today central Vancouver circa 1890, no author attributed

ḴEXMIN field station
still underwater:
Tracing Skwácháy̓s, “water coming up from ground beneath,” in today’s False Creek Flats

8 April – May 24, 2019
still underwater | 1: traces, pronunciations, recollections

The former inlet and salt marshes bounded today by Vancouver’s Union, Clark, Great Northern Way, and Main Street, were once known as Skwácháy̓s and False Creek East, what might roughly be translated as “water coming up from ground beneath.” In the centennial years of the filling and destruction of hole-in-bottom, PLOT invites the land art collective ḴEXMIN field station to initiate new research, field trips, monitoring, test sites, public conversations, screenings, ceremonies, performances, interventions, and proposals. In various periods over the next three years, still underwater will explore new forms of decolonial land art based on emergent protocols in acknowledging a wider range of territorial, linguistic, cultural, and historical concerns, as well as emerging relationships, alliances, and communalities.

enlargement of the“water coming up from ground beneath,” False Creek East portion of an informal surveyor map of what is today central Vancouver circa 1890, no author attributed

At the core of still underwater are a series of questions about new opportunities for environmental, site-based, and public art on the Pacific North-West coast: How can artists, curators and audiences—with a wide range of heritages—engage fully around unceded land and sites, with respect and support towards the rapidly evolving cultural, political, and legal protocols of the xwməθkwəy̓əm (Musqueam), Skwxwú7mesh (Squamish) and səl̓ílwətaʔɬ / Selilwitulh (Tsleil-Waututh) nations? For indigenous artists, what does it mean to have a heritage and political entitlement around unceded sites such as “water coming up from ground beneath”? On the seismically-vulnerable terrain of “water coming up from ground beneath,” how can site-based artistic interventions and permanent public art works hold transformative roles within its ‘redeveloping’ neighbourhoods, where new construction seems inevitable despite its geological instability?

This event is held on the unceded territory of the sḵwx̱wú7mesh, sel̓íl̓witulh, & xʷməθkʷəy̓əm nations.

a map of what is today central Vancouver made in the year of the city’s naming and incorporation, circa 13 June 1886 – Skwácháy̓s, “water coming up from ground beneath”, False Creek East is in the lower right indicated by “CREEK.” The “New Road” is today’s Main Street. Today the area indicated by ‘improvised morgue’ is occupied by the remaining train station in Vancouver, Pacific Central Station and the area indicated by “Refugees Bivouac” is the present location of Science World on the north-eastern corner of Olympic Village.

ḴEXMIN field station is a loose collective of indigenous and non-indigenous site-based artists, environmental researchers, scientists, and designers focused on the waters, shores and islands of the Salish Sea. Currently located on Salt Spring Island, the field station exists as a research, learning and experimentation space to nurture conversations spanning traditional indigenous knowledge, modern science, and contemporary culture. Individuals currently contributing to ‘still underwater’ include Musqueam weaver and public artist Debra Sparrow, Salish curator Rose Spahan, Métis public artist and environmental scientist Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (currently coordinating the 2019 events at PLOT), public artist and designer Alex Grünenfelder, ecological designer and public artist Oliver Kellhammer, and Sharon Kallis a community engaged environmental artist.

A Garry oak, Quercus garryana, woodland as a Salish cultural landscape

2018 Sept 24 Garry oak Belly-Rising, Tsawout Indian Reserve, Saanichton P9240116 photograph by Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

This Garry oak woodland is on top of small knoll above the beach and has been referred to in English by the Tawout as ‘Belly-Rising’ or ‘Belly-Rising-Up’. This ecosystem is  exceptional in its continuous management by Tsawout elders including the late Elsie Claxton. Diverse in harvested forbs, notably camas and chocolate lily, this oak woodland is also exceptional in the amount of lichens thriving in the crowns.

Deciphering Salish lines on the land

2018 March 25 above W̱EN,NÁ,NEĆ (elevation 80 m), Reginald Hill, Salt Spring Island

These rectangular stone enclosures, at 80 metres elevation on terraces above the village site of W̱EN,NÁ,NEĆ on Salt Spring Island, suggests cultivated beds of bulbs, such as camas and chocolate lily, and carrot-like roots including KEXMIN (Lomatium nudicaule) and yampah (Perideridia gairdneri). The small size of these beds, with each less than 80 cm X 40 cm, and the lack of deep earth suggest horticultural more than funerary sites.

There are numerous other archaeological sites in nearby valleys, hills and islands that go back at least 7,000 years. W̱EN,NÁ,NEĆ was occupied for millennia until residents were forcibly evicted from their own homes by the Government of Canada in 1923. The W̱EN,NÁ,NEĆ village site, established as an Indian Reserve in 1873, is not currently inhabited but continues to be carefully protected and stewarded by the Tsawout First Nation of Saanichton, British Columbia.

2018 March 25 above W̱EN,NÁ,NEĆ (elevation 80 m), Reginald Hill, Salt Spring Island

2018 March 25 above W̱EN,NÁ,NEĆ (elevation 80 m), Reginald Hill, Salt Spring Island

2018 March 25 above W̱EN,NÁ,NEĆ (elevation 80 m), Reginald Hill, Salt Spring Island

 

 

Planting ḴEXMIN seed, Lomatium nudicaule, in the roughgarden of the field station with the waxing of the full moon

2018 March 1 ḴEXMIN, Lomatium nudicaule & Camassia leichtlinii seeds

Planting ḴEXMIN seed, Lomatium nudicaule, in the field station’s roughgarden, with the waxing of the full moon, with the small dark seeds of giant camas, Camassia leichtlinii

2018 March 1 ḴEXMIN, Lomatium nudicaule & Camassia leichtlinii seeds

2018 March 1 ḴEXMIN, Lomatium nudicaule montage of stripes in seeds