ḴEXMIN, Lomatium nudicaule, a species with deep cultural, medicinal & nutritional significance to Salish communities

2018 September 24 ḴEXMIN, south of the Tsawout / SȾÁUTW̱ treaty lands P9240014 photograph by Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

 
 
 
 
 
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blooming ḴEXMIN, late spring in Lək̓ʷəŋən Territory, Vancouver Island

2019 2019 May 27 Lomatium nudicaule just beginning to flower, Lək̓ʷəŋən territory, Vancouver Island P1010022

Two of the most important Salish plants just coming into bloom: ḴEXMIN (yellow flowers) and camas, Camassia spp, in a traditional Lekwungen agricultural, gathering, and stewardship site, 2019 April 25 Lək̓ʷəŋən territory, Vancouver Island P4250100

ḴEXMIN [SENĆOŦEN], Lomatium nudicaule, just south of the  1852 Indian Reserve line set (under severe threat of imperial violence) for the W̱SÁNEĆ, north of Island View Beach, Central Saanich, Vancouver Island

2018 September 24 ḴEXMIN, south of the Tsawout / SȾÁUTW̱ treaty lands, Vancouver Island  P9240083

2018 September 24 ḴEXMIN, south of the Tsawout / SȾÁUTW̱ treaty lands P9240017

“One ceremonially prized plant, ‘wild celery’ (Lomatium nudicaule), was, and is still today, widely used and sought for medicinal and ceremonial purposes, and its seeds used as gifts. Some contemporary Northwest Coast peoples are careful to leave wild celery seeds behind, or to scatter seeds (when gathering medicines) to ensure it’s continuation, and this seems a likely candidate as a species that was managed and whose range has been extended through past human intervention. This attribution of a ‘spirit’ within all of nature’s creations, and of the powers of plants to affect human lives and human well-being, is another reflection of, and reason for, peoples’ stewardship of the plants they depend upon…” (Douglas Deur and Nancy J. Turner. 2005. Conclusions. in Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J. Turner (eds). Vancouver: UBC Press / Seattle: University of Seattle Press. pages 331 – 342. quote from pages 334 – 335 )

2018 September 24 ḴEXMIN south of the Tsawout / SȾÁUTW̱ treaty lands P9240028 This population is highly vulnerable to ongoing sea level rise and saltwater intrusion into roots.

In addition, the 2020 COVID19 pandemic has compelled herbalists to highlight the exceptional power of Lomatium  species as traditional and settler medicine for treating lung and viral disorders.

Gulf Islands snails on the run in a heat wave

2021 August 8 cf Pacific Sideband snail, Monadenia fidelis, Hwmet’utsun, Salt Spring Island * P8080017

Two snails were studied on August 8, 2021 in the Hwmet’utsun conservation area on the wild West Coast of Salt Spring Island in the territory of Cowichan Tribes. After a six week heat wave, linked to climate change, it can be assumed that the native snails of the Gulf Islands could have a difficult time surviving. These two snails could be out and about because there was light rain 36 hours before and there were droplets of rain under the otherwise dry arbutus leaf litter. These snails are probably the most common native snail on the Gulf Islands, the Pacific sideband snail, Monadenia fidelis, but there is a possibility that the second video is of a much rarer, Puget Oregonian snail, Cryptomastix devia (which has a pronounced, curled-up lip on the aperture of the shell). Along with hotter temperatures and more erratic rainfall patterns, native snails are vulnerable to terrestrial acidification from pollution sources nearby and across the North Pacific.

Renewing biodiversity conservation planning strategies as part of joint management with First Nations especially for the drier islands around the northern Salish Sea.

Gordon Brent BROCHU-INGRAM, KEXMIN field station, April 9, 2021, The Land We Would Like To Be: Renewing biodiversity conservation planning strategies as part of joint management with First Nations around the northern Salish Sea. City and Regional Futures Colloquium, Department of City and Regional Planning, Cornell University College of Architecture, Art, and Planning.

seaside juniper, PET̸EṈILĆ [SENĆOŦEN], Juniperus maritima, is endemic to the drier islands of the Salish Sea and was used to ward off disease

seaside juniper, Tsawout lands, Saanich, Vancouver Island 2020 August 7 P1010017

Seaside juniper, PET̸EṈILĆ [SENĆOŦEN], Juniperus maritima, is endemic to the Gulf and San Juan Islands and the adjacent Olympic Range. This is one of the rarest of the North American juniper species. The Salish relied on this conifer to to ward off disease.

seaside juniper, Tsawout lands, Saanich, Vancouver Island 2020 September 10 P1010002

This relatively young juniper, probably less than fifty years old, is on Tsawout, W̱SÁNEĆ, territory near the beach south of the southern line of the 1852 treaty. This mosaic of dunes, marsh and meadow is vulnerable to the rapid sea level rise taking place on the south-east coast of the Saanich Peninsula.

seaside juniper along Burgoyne Bay in the Hwmet’utsun protected landscape,
Salt Spring Island, 2020 September 13 P1010003 The juniper is in the centre of
the image with a young arbutus (madrone) on the left and a young Douglas fir
on the right. This juniper is probably twice or three times the age of this arbutus
and fir tree. This is the more typical form and habitat of seaside juniper though
are larger bush forms that grow near shorelines as well.

Seeds of ḴEXMIN, Lomatium nudicaule, six weeks from maturation as the land dries in early summer

2020 July 4 ḴEXMIN @ Lək̓ʷəŋən lands, Vancouver Island P1010019
2020 July 4 KEXMIN @ Lək̓ʷəŋən lands P1010060

This field of ḴEXMIN [SENĆOŦEN], Lomatium nudicaule, is in an urban park in Lək̓ʷəŋən territory and has been spared one of the most serious contemporary threats to northern populations of this species: excessive deer browsing due to predator suppression.

2020 July 4 ḴEXMIN @ Lək̓ʷəŋən lands, Vancouver Island P1010022

On the 4th of July, 2020, the land is drying out for the summer, the thick stalks of this carrot species have gone fully erect and the swollen green seeds are beginning to turn red and tan and desiccate. These seeds are roughly six weeks from being fully maturing and beginning to blow away and be harvested for Salish ceremonies.

 

 

 
 

 
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Pink honeysuckle, Qit’a’ [HUL’Q’UMI’NUM’], KIDE [SENĆOŦEN], Lonicera hispidula, is an ecologically important vine that blooms around the Summer Solstice

2020 June 24 pink honeysuckle Hwmet’utsun P1010075

Pink honeysuckle, Qit’a’uylhp [HUL’Q’UMI’NUM’], KIDE, AN ELP [SENĆOŦEN with a diagonal line on the ‘A’ and a horizontal cross on the ‘L’], Lonicera hispidula, is an ecologically important vine that blooms around the Summer Solstice.

2020 June 24 pink honeysuckle Hwmet’utsun P1010120

One of the two most ecologically important vines, pink honeysuckle provides a huge amount of food for pollinators, especially hummingbirds and some insects, at a critical time of year as most plants have flowered for the year, temperatures rise, and the landscape dries out for the coming three months.

2020 June 24 pink honeysuckle Hwmet’utsun P1010120

Adding a deep pink to the landscape as the hue moves from spring greens to summer browns, KIDE [SENĆOŦEN] has powerful cultural roles for the Salish from swings for ghost people to binding people together in love charms.

One of ten Pacific Sideband land snails, Monadenia fidelis, on a large and old Garry oak tree above Maxwell Point

2020 June 11 Pacific Sideband land snail, Monadenia fidelis, Maxwell Point P1010049

Pacific Sideband land snail, Monadenia fidelis, still occurs in substantial numbers in the mixed woodland of the Gulf Islands but its southern occurrences, down to California, are increasingly vulnerable. On June 11, there were ten of these land snails on the base of this large and old oak tree and these individuals may have been forming a mating cluster.

A wild bee harvesting pollen from the bloom of a wild rose, Rosa cf nutkana, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island

2020 May 26 bee pollinating Rosa cf nutkana, Burgoyne Bay Provincial Park * P1010129



Larger pollinators often depend on larger flowers. In this case, a relatively large wild bee is harvesting pollen, and perhaps nectar, from this wild rose — just after the peak total spring pollination of most prolific native pollinators on the Gulf and San Juan Islands.

buzz pollination of thimbleberry, Rubus parviflorus, by wild bees

Environmental researcher, Dominic Demers on buzz pollination by wild bees of thimbleberry, Ruckle Provincial Park, Salt Spring Island, 2020 May 15 * P1010150


Environmental researcher Dominic Demers on wild bee buzz pollination of thimbleberry, Rubus parviflorus

ḴEXMIN, Lomatium nudicaule: the medicine and food

2020 May 6 ḴEXMIN [SENĆOŦEN], Lomatium nudicaule, in a Lekwungen field, in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria, Vancouver Island P1010160

ḴEXMIN [SENĆOŦEN], Lomatium nudicaule, is a powerful flowering plant linking humans to the ecosystems in which we live in the drier areas near the West Coast of North America from Northern California to the Salish Sea.