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Charbagh (4 gardens) skematics

The ‘Charbagh’ as in ‘four’ ‘gardens’ are structured by at least one strong horizontal and at least one vertical, uncovered irrigation channels and flourished in the gardens of the Mughal Empire. Originally inspired by Persian and Central Asian elements, the Mughal Charbagh absorbed more southerly design of South Asia particularly that of Rajasthan.

Gordon Brent INGRAM: ongoing projects & collaborations

Crabapple in the Railtown Studios roof garden, 30 April, 2009 photograph by Gordon Brent Ingram

Crabapple in the Railtown Studios roof garden, 30 April, 2009 photograph by Gordon Brent Ingram

o Strategies for sustainability transitions

o Ecosystem recovery strategies through environmental planning and design

o Planning and design of public art and other cultural infrastructure for neighbourhood development & ecological restoration

o Critical social and cultural theory and criticism in site-based art, landscape architecture, urban design, and sustainability transitions

o Conservation strategies for heritage neighbourhoods and landscapes including indigenous food production sites in North America and Mughal and Javanese gardens & their environmental histories

o Planning and design of metropolitan-wide networks of open space, public urban space, and protected areas

o Environmental mapping & land use planning by indigenous communities and related conservation initiatives

o Urban planning and design for the strategic sites and public space of sexual minorities

o Design and management of green roofs as part of sustainability initiatives

o Biodiversity conservation through environmental planning and design

o The implications of landscape ecology for ecosystem management and conservation planning with an ongoing research involvement in mosaics with Northern Garry Oak Ecosystems in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest of the United States with ongoing research on Mount Maxwell, Salt Spring Island

Gordon Brent INGRAM: plans, designs & proposals

side stream environmental design (Julian Castle and Gordon Brent Ingram). 2014. “A la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonizing permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting. Proposal to Utopiana, Geneva for the programme, “Nature, adversity, etc.”
PDF available: castle-ingram-2014-proposal-utopiana-geneva

side stream environmental design (Julian Castle and Gordon Brent Ingram). 2013. “higher tides flooding debris flotsam driftwood repatriation” originally proposed for South London in association with Flat Time House and the Barry Flanagan Foundation

side stream environmental design. 2013. “We work where we live because we cannot find anywhere else to get the work done so that we can get paid: The political aesthetics of artist live work spaces in Vancouver.” Concept for a cultural series on artist live work studio urban planning and political economies developed for the Vancouver Tennant Union’s Rent Assembly programme.

side stream environmental design (Julian Castle, Gordon Brent Ingram, Cameron Murray, Rose Spahan, and Debra Sparrow). 2012 - 2-13. R.E.p.l.a.n.t: Bringing Salish food plants native to neighbourhoods back into urban agriculture & contemporary art. proposal for Vancouver’s False Creek Flats, for public art and urban agriculture. PDF available:

Gordon Brent Ingram, Jaspal Marwah, Rose Spahan, Debra Sparrow, Julian Castle, Annabel Vaughan and Cameron Murray. 2012. search 4 redesigns: Insubordinate interventions for Vancouver’s public open space. Proposal for a curatorial series to 221A, Vancouver.

Ingram, G. B. 2008. Public input - Salt Spring Island Parks and Ecological Reserves Management Planning. submitted to BC Parks, Victoria. PDF available:

side stream environmental design. 2005. ‘time-line’ public art proposal for the Fresh Ground cultural series, Harbourfront Centre, Toronto.

side stream environmental design. 2004. The Chalet Corbeau Property: Towards a site plan (Echenevex, Pay du Gex, France).
PDF copy: ingram-2004-chalet-corbeau-pay-du-gex-france-towards-a-site-plan

side stream environmental design. 2002. lost & found: re-establishing disappearing native trees as landart in under-used portions of neighbourhood parks as part of the Art & The Environment initiative of Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation & Community Arts Council of Vancouver. PDF available:

side stream environmental design. 2002. time line: A progression of motion, change & time-related installations about the twentieth century for the Art on the Ontario Street Greenway programme of the City of Vancouver Public Art Program.

Ingram, G. B. 2002. domination nation: 8 interventions subverting & rewriting early sites in the establishment of national & economic institutions in Vancouver. proposal to Artspeak Gallery.


Ingram, G. B. 2001. Review of Salt Spring Island Local Trust Committee Draft Bylaw 365 Schedule 1 on Conservation of Garry Oak Ecosystems. Submitted to the Salt Spring Island Conservancy. PDF copy available: ingram-2001-review-of-salt-spring-island-local-trust-committee-draft-bylaw-365-schedule-1-on-garry-oak-ecosystems

Ingram, G. B. 2001. Review of the Recovery Strategy for Garry Oak and Associated Ecosystems and their Associated Species at Risk in Canada 2001 - 2006. submitted to the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team. PDF copy available: ingram-2001-review-of-the-recovery-strategy-for-garry-oak-and-associated-ecosystems-2001-2006

Ingram, G. B. & Allan Lidstone. 2001. A conservation planning process for northern (Canadian) Garry oak ecosystems & associated biodiversity. A discussion paper for the GOERT (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team) Conservation Planning & Site Protection Recovery Action Group. PDF copy available: ingram-lidstone-2001-discussion-paper-a-conservation-planning-process-for-northern-canadian-garry-oak-ecosystems

Ingram, G. B. and He Bin. 2000. A strategy for training in development, management & use of forest biodiversity conservation geographic information systems. Report to the Forest Conservation and Community Development Project, Yunnan Department of Forestry State Forestry Administration, People’s Republic of China & the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of the Netherlands. PDF copies available: ingram-bin-2000-a-strategy-for-training-for-gis-for-forest-biodiversity-conservation-yunnan; ingram-bin-2000-strategy-for-yunnan-appendix-i-strategy-flowchart-march-2000

Ingram, Claudia Morgada and Cameron Murray. 1999. until the rock crumbles. Proposal for public art site / sculpture / mixed media in Parque de la Memoria / Monumento a las victimas del terrorismo de estado. Park for the memory of victims of state terrorism, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Cowan, J., G. B. Ingram, C. Murray, and M. Wong. 1998. side stream: an arc of pools for False Creek & Skwaychays, `hole in bottom’, Vancouver. Proposal to Concorde Pacific for Marinaside Crescent by side stream environment design group.

Ingram, G. B. 1995. Old-growth forest and wilderness landscape values in the lands of the Greater Victoria Water District (with an emphasis on the Vietch, Niagara, and Waugh Creeks watersheds). Brief for the Western Canada Wilderness Committee, Victoria Branch to the Greater Victoria Water District.

Ingram, G. B. 1995. Scale and site-specificity requirements in the review of the cumulative impacts on biodiversity, visual, and heritage resources in the environmental assessment of the proposed Bamberton Town Development, Vancouver Island. Report to Province of British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office and Citizens’ Association to Save the Environment, Victoria.

Vagelatos, K. and G. B. Ingram. 1995. Native plants for residential landscapes: Design and management guidelines for southwestern BC. A Report to the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation of Canada, Ottawa. PDF copy available: vagelatos-ingram-1995-native-plants-for-residential-landscapes

Ingram, G. B. 1995. Implications of the Convention on Biological Diversity for institutional development in Indonesia and Malaysia: With a case study on Siberut, Indonesia. Canada-Southeast Asia Policy Paper for the Canada-Asia Pacific Institute. PDF copy available: ingram-1995-implications-of-the-convention-on-biological-diversity-institutional-development-in-indonesia-and-malaysia

H. S. Cassell and G. B. Ingram. 1994. Project outline for a Management Plan and Manual for St. Paul Subterranean River National Park and adjacent areas, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan. Report to the City of Puerto Princesa, Philippines.

G. B. Ingram. 1994. The sikerei of Siberut (Indonesia), intellectual property, and reserves for traditional knowledge. Report to the Rainforest Alliance (New York City) Natural Resources and Rights Program. PDF copy available: ingram-1994-the-sikerei-of-siberut-indonesia-intellectual-property-reserves-for-traditional-knowledge

Ingram, G. B. and A. Pearson. 1990. Planning for islands: Habitat conservation, visual resources management, and wildland recreation development. Submission to the British Columbia Forest Resources Commission.

Ingram, G. B. 1981. Fragments: Management, protection, and restoration proposals for thirteen ecological reserves in British Columbia, Canada - A report to the Ecological Reserves Committee and Advisory Board and the Ministry of Lands, Parks, and Housing of the Government of the Province of British Columbia, June 1981. Executive Summary available in PDF file: ingram-1981-fragments-management-protection-and-restoration-proposals-for-thirteen-ecological-reserves-in-british-columbia

Gordon Brent INGRAM: studies & reports

Gordon Brent INGRAM: studies & reports

Brochu-Ingram, Gordon Brent & KEXMIN field station. 2016. Interim Report on the Status of Mount Maxwell Ecological Reserve, as part of the Hwmet’utsum Coast Salish Cultural Landscape, Salt Spring Island. Research for Friends of Ecological Reserves, Victoria, British Columbia.

Ingram, G. B. 2002. A project concept for capacity building in forest biodiversity conservation for Pakistan 2002 – 2007 - A report to the Inspector General of Forests of the Pakistan Ministry of Environment and Rural Development; The Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar; WWF-Pakistan; and LEAD – Pakistan. PDF copy available: ingram-2002-capacity-building-in-forest-biodiversity-conservation-for-pakistan

Ingram, G. B. 2002. The Garry oak ecosystems on the southwest face of Mt. Sutil, Galiano Island: Field notes from 2 9 2002 & some recommendations. Report to the Galiano Conservancy Association & Islands Trust. PDF copy available: ingram-2002-mt-sutil-galiano-garry-oak-ecosystems-2-9-2002-field-notes-recommendations

Ingram, G. B. 2002. Some information needed for making a list of priority areas with currently unprotected Garry oak ecosystems warranting immediate protection — Discussion paper for the Conservation Planning & Site Protection Recovery Action Group of GOERT. PDF copy available: ingram-2002-information-needed-for-making-a-list-of-priority-unprotected-garry-oak-ecosystems-warranting-immediate-protection

Ingram, G. B. 2001. Analysis of the January 2001 Catalogue of Site Records of the Georgia Basin Ecosystem Partnership for locations of interest for conservation planning under the terms of the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Strategy. Report to GOERT. PDF copy available: ingram-2001-analysis-of-the-january-2001-catalogue-of-site-records-of-the-georgia-basin-ecosystem-partnership

Ingram. 2000. Needs assessment for training in design, data format development, management & use of geographic information systems for forest biodiversity conservation with an emphasis on the Caiyanghe Nature Reserve pilot project, Yunnan Province, China. A report to the State Forestry Administration of the People’s Republic of China, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China & Forest Conservation and Community Development Project (FCCDP), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of the Netherlands. PDF copy available: ingram-2000-needs-assessment-for-gis-for-forest-biodiversity-conservation-caiyanghe-nature-reserve

Ingram, G. B. 1995. “Local” implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity through protected areas: Some contradictions for the Mentawai of Siberut Indonesia. Canada-Southeast Asia Policy Paper for the Canada-Asia Pacific Institute. PDF copy available: ingram-1995-locally-initiated-conservation-planning-on-siberut-indonesia

Ingram, G. B. 1994. The Status of Biological Diversity and Ancient Forest Ecosystems in Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island, Canada - February 1994. Report to the European Parliament.  PDF copy available: ingram-1994-the-status-of-biological-diversity-ancient-forest-ecosystems-in-clayoquot-sound-report-to-the-european-parliament |  Publicity: Glenn Bohn. UBC report chops at `unscientific’ compromise on Clayoquot clearcut. Vancouver Sun, Thursday, April 14, 1994: B3. PDF copy available: glenn-bohn-ubc-report-chops-at-unscientific-compromise-on-clayoquot-clearcut-vancouver-sun-april-14-1994

Ingram, G. B. 1994. Principles for a Long-term monitoring group for Clayoquot Sound and conservation partnerships with Nuu-Chah-Nulth communities. Report to Western Canada Wilderness Committee, Natural Resources Defense Council and Greenpeace International. PDF copy available: ingram-1994-principles-for-a-long-term-monitoring-group-for-clayoquot-sound-and-conservation-partnerships-with-nuu-chah-nulth-communities

Ingram, G. B. 1994. Geographic information systems for the conservation of the biological diversity of biosphere reserves of China. Final report on a joint Chinese Academy of Science University of British Columbia - IDRC Collaboration.  PDF copy available: ingram-1994-gis-for-the-conservation-of-the-biological-diversity-of-biosphere-reserves-of-china1

Zhao, X., G. B. Ingram, Zhao Y., Sun D., Xie Z. X., Zhang Q., R. F. J. McFarland. 1994. Conservation of biological diversity in the biosphere reserves of subtropical China: Obstacles and opportunities.  Report to the International Development Research Centre (of Canada). PDF copy available: zhao-ingram-zhao-sun-xie-zhang-mcfarland-1994-conservation-of-biological-diversity-in-the-biosphere-reserves-of-subtropical-china + ingram-1994-the-biosphere-reserves-of-southern-china-some-critical-perspectives

Ingram, G. B. 1994. Geographic information systems for the biosphere reserves of subtropical China: Methodologies and prototypes. Report to the International Development Research Centre (of Canada). PDF copy available: ingram-1994-gis-for-the-biosphere-reserves-of-subtropical-china-some-methodologies-and-prototypes

Ingram, G. B. 1994. Feasibility study for a geographic information system for biological diversity conservation in Xishuangbanna Biosphere Reserve, China. Report to the International Development Research Centre (of Canada). PDF copy available: ingram-1994-feasibility-study-for-a-gis-system-for-biological-diversity-conservation-in-xishuangbanna

Heywood, V., G. B. Ingram, J. Black, L. Olivier. 1992. Report on Workshop IV.6 - Managing Protected Areas to Conserve Genetic Resources, IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela, 2/92. On file, Office of the Director-General, The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland. Report to the International Development Research Centre (of Canada). PDF copy available: heywood-ingram-black-olivier-1993-managing-protected-areas-to-conserve-genetic-resources

Ingram, G. B., W. K. Weiberg, N. A. Page. 1991. Turning public concerns for the conservation of biological diversity and old-growth forest into operational criteria for land use planning. Report submitted to the Research Branch of the British Columbia Ministry of Forests.

Ingram, G. B., W. K. Weiberg, N. A. Page. 1991. The technical basis of landscape analysis for the conservation of biological diversity and old-growth attributes in the CWH [Coastal Western Hemlock] Zone. Report submitted to the Research Branch of the British Columbia Ministry of Forests.

Ingram, G. B., W. K. Weiberg, N. A. Page. 1991. Generation of alternative sets of protected habitat, harvesting and silvicultural prescriptions for the conservation of biological diversity. Report submitted to the Research Branch of the British Columbia Ministry of Forests. PDF copy available: ingram-weiberg-page-1991-generation-of-alternative-sets-of-protected-habitat-harvesting-and-silvicultural-prescriptions-for-the-conservation-of-biological-diversity

Ingram, G. B. and A. Flavelle. 1991. Section in the IUCN 1992 Biodiversity Status Report, In situ conservation of crops and wild relatives of crops. Report to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, England. PDF copy available: ingram-flavelle-1992-in-situ-conservation-of-crops-and-wild-relatives-of-crops-in-global-biodiversity-status-of-the-earths-living-resources-pp-544-e28093-549

Ingram, G. B. 1990. Requirements for the design and management of edges in planning reserves with old growth forest. Report submitted to the Old Growth Strategy Task Force. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. PDF copy available: ingram-1990-requirements-for-the-design-and-management-of-edges-in-planning-reserves-with-old-growth-forest

Ingram, G. B. 1990. Successional mosaics, biological diversity and the management of old growth fragments across districts. Report submitted to the Old Growth Strategy Task Force. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. PDF copy available: ingram-1990-successional-mosaics-biological-diversity-and-the-management-of-old-growth-fragments

Ingram, G. B. 1990. Satellite imagery as a tool in the inventory of old-growth forests. Report submitted to the Old Growth Strategy Task Force. British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. PDF copy available: ingram-1990-satellite-imagery-as-a-tool-in-the-inventory-of-old-growth-forests

Ingram, G. B. 1989. Monitoring and conservation of the biological diversity of the Burnaby Island, Skwa-ikungwa-i, area of the South Moresby National Park Reserve - A report to Parks Canada, May 1989.

Ingram, G. B. 1989. Towards monitoring and protection of the biological diversity of the rainforest and coral habitats of off-shore New Guinea island - Fergusson Island, Milne Bay Province, Papua, New Guinea – An urgent call to action — A report to the Office of Environment and Conservation, Government of Papua, New Guinea; Biology Department of the University of Papua, New Guinea and World Wildlife Fund -Australia – June 1989. PDF copy available: ingram-1989-report-to-wwf-on-biodiversity-conservation-on-fergusson-island-png

Ingram, G. B., A. Jackson, S. Tostain and H. Moss. 1986, 1987. Mission to southern Aïr Mountains, north central Niger - site and sample data. Report to International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Republic of Niger. AGPG: IBPGR 86/183. on file, Rome, FAO.

Ingram, G. B. 1986. Report on a survey and germplasm collecting mission to northern Cameroon.  Report to the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. On file, Rome. AGPG: IBPGR 86/182.

Ingram, G. B. 1986. Eco-geographic surveys. in International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, FAO Report, “In-house” review on the collection of wild species relatives of major crop plants. Rome 8 – 11 December, 1986. on file, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome (AGPG: IBPGR 85/147). Appendix IV pp. 1 – 4. PDF copy available: ingram-1986-eco-geographic-surveys-in-ibpgrfao-in-house-review-on-the-collection-of-wild-species-relatives-of-major-crop-plants

International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. 1985. Ecogeographical Surveying and In situ Conservation of Crop Relatives. Report of an IBPGR Task Force, 30 July - 1 August, 1984, Washington, D.C. AGPG: IBPGR/84/132. Rome, IBPGR Secretariat, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. PDF cpy available: ibpgr-1985-ecogeographical-surveying-and-in-situ-conservation-of-crop-relatives

Gordon Brent Ingram: field Studies

Valley landscape as part of Salish \'bowl\' cosmology, central Vancouver, drawing by Gordon Brent Ingram

Gordon Brent Ingram: field research on regional ecosystems
· Pakistan: 2000, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007.
· United Arab Emirates & Oman: 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007.
· Bangladesh: 2000.
· Brunei & Philippines: 1994.
· China: 1991, 1993.
· Sahel of West Africa: Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso & Cameroon 1984 to 1986.
· Yemen 1984.
· Indonesia 1982, 1986, 1987 to 1991.
· California 1978 to 1983, 1998.
· British Columbia 1974 to 1982, 1989 to present.

Gordon Brent Ingram: field research on cultural landscapes
· Urbanization (of Dubai and Abu Dhabi) and the more traditional cultural landscapes of the northern United Arab Emirates and Oman 2003 to present.
· Historic and contemporary open space in Pakistan and India with an emphasis on the Salt Range of the northern Punjab and relict gardens from the Moghul period, 2000, 2001, 2004.
· Aboriginal cultural landscapes of the British Columbia coast with a focus on Garry oak ecosystems and sites such as Mount Maxwell, Salt Spring Island and Haida Gwaii on the North Coast, 1974 to present (with work on Mount Maxwell beginning in 1978).
· Green roofs especially in western parts of North America, 1999 to present.
· New and historic open space and urban design projects in the Netherlands and in Venice, 1999.
· Archived designs and files of San Francisco-based landscape architect Thomas Dolliver Church (with some field work), 1998.
· Public art of Helen and Newton Meyer Harrison, particularly the work, California Wash, Santa Monica, 1997.
· Strategic public spaces of sexual minorities, 1980 to 1982, 1993 to present.
· China particularly palace and Buddhist temple architecture in the mountains of the subtropical south 1991, 1993.
· Islamic gardens of southern Spain 1992.
· Java, Indonesia particularly public garden, water palaces, and reconstructed Hindu shivite temples 1988 to 1991.
· Orchards and field gene banks of France 1986.
· West African garden vernacular and responses to desertification 1984, 1985, 1986.
· Italian open space, piazzas, and gardens 1983 to 1987, 1990, 1994, 1995.
· Environmental schoolyards in California 1981 and 1982.

Detail from Akbar’s Palace in Ajmer, Rajasthan

Gazebo for eastern France inspired by Lahore’s Naulakha Pavilion

This gazebo concept was proposed in 2004 for the garden of Chalet Corbeau in the town of Echenevex in the Pay du Gex region of France, near Geneva. The concept was inspired by Lahore’s Naulakha Pavilion which is photographed above. However, viewed in terms of the Canadian aesthetics of the both the clients and the designer, the curve of Naulakhha, originally inspired by Rajasthani court architecture, can be seen as an inverted canoe that has been used for shelter for a much longer period than the existence of the Rajput courts.

Today the Pavilion is part of a UNESCO World Heritage site and an icon in contemporary Pakistani architecture as described below.

on Naulakha Pavilion from Wikipedia
Architect:     Wazir Khan
Civil engineer:     Abd al-Karim
“When the pavilion was built in 1633 by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a small summer house, it cost around 900,000 rupees, an exorbitant amount at the time. It is called Naulakha because in Urdu language, the word means ‘worth 9 lakhs rupees’. This also brought the word Naulakha into common use to signify something precious.
The Lahore Fort was built in 1566 under the rule of Mughal emperor Akbar the Great on the location of an earlier mud-fort. The solid brick masonry complex was later extended and modified by subsequent emperors. Mughal emperor Shah Jahan was a romantic man who constructed Taj Mahal in Agra and after that this master piece in Lahore was built in 1633 as a small summer house, it cost around 900,000 rupees, an exorbitant amount at the time. Naulakha Pavilion is among the buildings that were erected or reconstructed between 1628 and 1634 under Shah Jahan’s rule. Due to his personal interest in the design and construction, Shah Jahan’s architectural traditions manifest distinctive symmetry and hierarchical accents. Naulakha Pavilion is part of the Shah Burj block in the northwest section of the fort that was actually built by his predecessor Jahangir.”

Studies become designs become studies

Florence’s Ponte Vecchio on the Arno River May 1994

Artichokes in a roof garden above Vancouver Harbour

artichokes, Railtown Studios green roof, Vancouver 2

artichokes, Railtown Studios green roof, Vancouver

Misfat Al A’briyeen, Hajar Mountains, Oman

Much of the traditional agriculture of the Arabian / Persian Gulf region is in decline or being abandoned. Costs of water and labour have increased as have the expectations of farmers. Imports are relatively cheap. But more remote areas of Oman’s Hajar Mountains remain exceptional examples of particularly cosmopolitan forms of agro-forestry. Here date palm production is combined with understories of citrus, roses, and even cereals. Irrigation techniques, such as falaj systems of troughs, are still used to carefully manage scarce water resources. And along with sites of dense food production are dense villages on adjacent hillsides.

In trying to conceive of sustainable settlements for the Middle East, I often return to and reference villages such as Balad Seet and Misfat Al A’briyeen (which are connected by steep mountain trails). These images of Misfat Al A’briyeen were taken from 2004 to 2007. The agriculture in and textures of these communities warrant much celebration, study, learning, and documentation. Misfat Al A’briyeen is almost of a living university of traditional Arab and Persian agriculture especially for mountain and subtropical areas.

The context of the higher elevation villages of the Hajar Mountains with the Gulf of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz on the far left, one of the higher portions of the Hajar Mountains in middle image, and an example of some of the ridges exceeding well over 2000 metres on the far right.

A falaj, an open stone and concrete trough, is in the lower part of this image. Below are some details of that same trough.