Skip to content

Category Archives: South Asia

Detail from Akbar’s Palace in Ajmer, Rajasthan

Gazebo for eastern France inspired by Lahore’s Naulakha Pavilion

This gazebo concept was proposed in 2004 for the garden of Chalet Corbeau in the town of Echenevex in the Pay du Gex region of France, near Geneva. The concept was inspired by Lahore’s Naulakha Pavilion which is photographed above. However, viewed in terms of the Canadian aesthetics of the both the clients and the [...]

Mughal gardens as seminal landscapes for modernism

Modernism was prefigured by the Mughals or, more specifically, in some of the new public space which they created. I first began studying Moghul gardens in the summer of 2000 while advising on the development of a conservation concept for the Salt Range of the north-western Punjab, an area that saw one of India’s first [...]

Mughal Gardens: Cooling geometries of water, shade & sustainability

Perhaps no garden form, at least in recent centuries, functioned as much like a machine — or an organism as the charbagh of India.

Central axis and trough filled with water of the charbagh Humayun’s Tomb (viewed from the terrace of the tomb), New Delhi, 5 March, 2007, photograph by Gordon Brent Ingram

Pakistan’s Salt Range: Exploring alternative strategies for forest biodiversity conservation & community development

I was first invited to the work in the Pakistan Punjab’s Salt Range in August 2000*.On these margins of the Indian subcontinent’s monsoons, the heat of the summer broke into showers. My time in those hills and low-lying mountains has been enchanting though has sometimes been overwhelmed in realization the extent of the [...]

Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

Survey of remaining mangrove forest and human communities, southern Sundarbans, Bangladesh

Sundarbans sample plot for identifying remaining fragments of more intact mangrove forest, courtesy of Mohammed Abu Syed


In August of 2000, at the height of the monsoon rains, I went to the Kulna District of Bangladesh to advise one of my graduate students, Mohammed Abu Syed. ‘Syed’ who now teaches remote sensing for [...]